Solar eclipse of April 8, 2024

A total solar eclipse will take place at the Moon's ascending node on Monday, April 8, 2024, visible across North America and dubbed the Great North American Eclipse (also Great American Total Solar Eclipse and Great American Eclipse) by some of the media.[1][2][3] A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

Solar eclipse of April 8, 2024
SE2024Apr08T.png
Map
Type of eclipse
Nature Total
Gamma 0.3431
Magnitude 1.0566
Maximum eclipse
Duration 268 sec (4 m 28 s)
Location Nazas, Durango, Mexico
Coordinates 25°18′N 104°06′W / 25.3°N 104.1°W / 25.3; -104.1
Max. width of band 198 km (123 mi)
Times (UTC)
(P1) Partial begin 15:42:07
(U1) Total begin 16:38:44
Greatest eclipse 18:18:29
(U4) Total end 19:55:29
(P4) Partial end 20:52:14
References
Saros 139 (30 of 71)
Catalog # (SE5000) 9561

Occurring only one day after perigee (perigee on April 7, 2024), the Moon's apparent diameter will be larger than usual. With a magnitude of 1.0566, its longest duration of totality will be of four minutes and 28.13 seconds near the town of Nazas, Durango, Mexico (~6 km north), and the nearby city of Torreón, Coahuila.

This eclipse will be the first total solar eclipse to be visible in Canada since February 26, 1979,[4] the first in Mexico since July 11, 1991,[5] and the first in the U.S. since August 21, 2017. It will be the only total solar eclipse in the 21st century where totality will be visible in the three-state set of Mexico, the United States, and Canada.[6]

The next solar eclipse occurs October 2, 2024.

VisibilityEdit

 
Animation of path

Totality will be visible in a narrow strip in North America, beginning at the Pacific coast, then ascending in a northeasterly direction through Mexico, the United States, and Canada, before ending in the Atlantic Ocean.

MexicoEdit

In Mexico, totality will pass through the states of Sinaloa (including Mazatlán), Durango (including Durango and Gómez Palacio) and Coahuila (including Torreón, Matamoros, Monclova, Sabinas, Ciudad Acuña and Piedras Negras).

United StatesEdit

In the United States, totality will be visible through the states of Texas (including parts of San Antonio, Austin, and Fort Worth and all of Arlington, Dallas, Killeen, Temple, Texarkana, Tyler and Waco), Oklahoma, Arkansas (including Hot Springs, Searcy, Jonesboro, and Little Rock), Missouri, Illinois (including Carbondale, where it intersects the path of the 2017 eclipse), Kentucky, Indiana (including Bloomington, Evansville, Indianapolis, Muncie, Terre Haute, and Vincennes), Ohio (including Akron, Dayton, Lima, Roundhead, Toledo, Oak Harbor, Cleveland, Warren, Newton Falls and Austintown), Michigan (extreme southeastern corner of Monroe County), Pennsylvania (including Erie), Upstate New York (including Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Rochester, Syracuse, the Adirondacks, Potsdam, and Plattsburgh), and northern Vermont (including Burlington), New Hampshire, and Maine,[7][8] with the line of totality going almost directly over the state's highest point Mount Katahdin.[citation needed] The largest city entirely in the path will be Dallas, Texas. It will be the second total eclipse visible from the central United States in just 7 years, after the eclipse of August 21, 2017 (see "Related Eclipses", below). Totality will pass through the town of Wapakoneta, Ohio, home of Neil Armstrong, the first person to set foot upon the Moon. This will be the last total solar eclipse visible in the contiguous United States until August 23, 2044.

CanadaEdit

In Canada, the path of totality will pass over parts of Southern Ontario (including Leamington, Hamilton, Niagara Falls, Kingston, Prince Edward County, and Cornwall), parts of southern Quebec (including Montreal, Sherbrooke, Saint-Georges and Lac-Mégantic), central New Brunswick (including Fredericton and Miramichi),[11] western Prince Edward Island (including Tignish and Summerside),[12] the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia,[13] and central Newfoundland (including Gander and Grand Falls-Windsor). Then, it will vanish on the eastern Atlantic coast of Newfoundland. (Some of the Canadian cities listed, such as Hamilton and Montreal, are on an edge of the path of totality. Windsor, London, Toronto and Ottawa lie just north of the path of totality, and Moncton lies just south of it.)

EuropeEdit

The eclipse will be partially seen in Svalbard (Norway), in Iceland, Ireland, west parts of Great Britain, north-west parts of Spain and Portugal, the Azores and Canary Islands.[14]

AmericasEdit

The eclipse will be partially seen in all Central America countries, from Belize to Panama, and in all Greater Antilles (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico and Jamaica).

Related eclipsesEdit

The path of this eclipse will cross the path of the prior total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, with the intersection of the two paths being in southern Illinois, in Makanda, just south of Carbondale.[15] The cities of Benton, Carbondale, Chester, Harrisburg, Marion, and Metropolis in Illinois; Cape Girardeau, Farmington, and Perryville in Missouri, as well as Paducah, Kentucky, will be within a roughly 9,000-square-mile (23,000 km2) intersection of the paths of totality of both the 2017 and 2024 eclipses, therefore earning the distinction of being witness to two total solar eclipses within a span of seven years.

Eclipses of 2024Edit

Solar eclipses 2022–2025Edit

This eclipse is a member of a semester series. An eclipse in a semester series of solar eclipses repeats approximately every 177 days and 4 hours (a semester) at alternating nodes of the Moon's orbit.[16]

Solar eclipse series sets from 2022–2025
Ascending node   Descending node
Saros Map Gamma Saros Map Gamma
119
 
Partial from Santiago, Chile
2022 April 30
 
Partial
-1.19008 124
 
Partial from Saratov, Russia
2022 October 25
 
Partial
1.07014
129 2023 April 20
 
Hybrid
-0.39515 134 2023 October 14
 
Annular
0.37534
139 2024 April 8
 
Total
0.34314 144 2024 October 2
 
Annular
-0.35087
149 2025 March 29
 
Partial
1.04053 154 2025 September 21
 
Partial
-1.06509

Saros 139Edit

It is a part of saros series 139, repeating every 18 years, 11 days, 8 hours, containing 71 events. The series started with partial solar eclipse on May 17, 1501. It contains hybrid eclipses on August 11, 1627 through to December 9, 1825 and total eclipses from December 21, 1843 through to March 26, 2601. The series ends at member 71 as a partial eclipse on July 3, 2763. Its eclipses are entabulated in three columns; each one in the same column, every third eclipse, is one exeligmos apart so cast shadows over approximately the same parts of the earth.

The solar eclipse of June 13, 2132 will be the longest total solar eclipse since July 11, 1991 at 6 minutes, 55.02 seconds.

The longest duration of totality will be produced by member 39 at 7 minutes, 29.22 seconds on July 16, 2186.[17] After that date each duration will decrease, until the series end. This date is the longest solar eclipse computed between 4000 BC and 6000 AD.[18] Saros series eclipses are during the Moon’s ascending node (a term related to our equator and polar-naming conventions).

Series members 24–45 occur between 1901 and 2300
24 25 26
 
February 3, 1916
 
February 14, 1934
 
February 25, 1952
27 28 29
 
March 7, 1970
 
March 18, 1988
 
March 29, 2006
30 31 32
 
April 8, 2024
 
April 20, 2042
 
April 30, 2060
33 34 35
 
May 11, 2078
 
May 22, 2096
 
June 3, 2114
36 37 38
 
June 13, 2132
 
June 25, 2150
 
July 5, 2168
39 40 41
 
July 16, 2186
 
July 27, 2204
 
August 8, 2222
42 43 44
 
August 18, 2240
 
August 29, 2258
 
September 9, 2276
45
 
September 20, 2294

Tritos seriesEdit

This eclipse is a part of a tritos cycle, repeating at alternating nodes every 135 synodic months (≈ 3986.63 days, or 11 years minus 1 month). Their appearance and longitude are irregular due to a lack of synchronization with the anomalistic month (period of perigee), but groupings of 3 tritos cycles (≈ 33 years minus 3 months) come close (≈ 434.044 anomalistic months), so eclipses are similar in these groupings.

Series members between 1801 and 2100
 
December 21, 1805
(Saros 119)
 
November 19, 1816
(Saros 120)
 
October 20, 1827
(Saros 121)
 
September 18, 1838
(Saros 122)
 
August 18, 1849
(Saros 123)
 
July 18, 1860
(Saros 124)
 
June 18, 1871
(Saros 125)
 
May 17, 1882
(Saros 126)
 
April 16, 1893
(Saros 127)
 
March 17, 1904
(Saros 128)
 
February 14, 1915
(Saros 129)
 
January 14, 1926
(Saros 130)
 
December 13, 1936
(Saros 131)
 
November 12, 1947
(Saros 132)
 
October 12, 1958
(Saros 133)
 
September 11, 1969
(Saros 134)
 
August 10, 1980
(Saros 135)
 
July 11, 1991
(Saros 136)
 
June 10, 2002
(Saros 137)
 
May 10, 2013
(Saros 138)
 
April 8, 2024
(Saros 139)
 
March 9, 2035
(Saros 140)
 
February 5, 2046
(Saros 141)
 
January 5, 2057
(Saros 142)
 
December 6, 2067
(Saros 143)
 
November 4, 2078
(Saros 144)
 
October 4, 2089
(Saros 145)
 
September 4, 2100
(Saros 146)

In the 22nd century:

  • Solar saros 147: annular solar eclipse of August 4, 2111
  • Solar saros 148: total solar eclipse of July 4, 2122
  • Solar saros 149: total solar eclipse of June 3, 2133
  • Solar saros 150: annular solar eclipse of May 3, 2144
  • Solar saros 151: annular solar eclipse of April 2, 2155
  • Solar saros 152: total solar eclipse of March 2, 2166
  • Solar saros 153: annular solar eclipse of January 29, 2177
  • Solar saros 154: annular solar eclipse of December 29, 2187
  • Solar saros 155: total solar eclipse of November 28, 2198

In the 23rd century:

  • Solar saros 156: annular solar eclipse of October 29, 2209
  • Solar saros 157: annular solar eclipse of September 27, 2220
  • Solar saros 158: total solar eclipse of August 28, 2231
  • Solar saros 159: partial solar eclipse of July 28, 2242
  • Solar saros 160: partial solar eclipse of June 26, 2253
  • Solar saros 161: partial solar eclipse of May 26, 2264
  • Solar saros 162: partial solar eclipse of April 26, 2275
  • Solar saros 163: partial solar eclipse of March 25, 2286
  • Solar saros 164: partial solar eclipse of February 22, 2297

Metonic seriesEdit

The metonic series repeats eclipses every 19 years (6939.69 days), lasting about 5 cycles. Eclipses occur in nearly the same calendar date. In addition, the octon subseries repeats 1/5 of that or every 3.8 years (1387.94 days). All eclipses in this table occur at the Moon's ascending node.

21 eclipse events between June 21, 1982, and June 21, 2058
June 21 April 8–9 January 26 November 13–14 September 1–2
107 109 111 113 115
June 21, 1963 April 9, 1967 January 26, 1971 November 14, 1974 September 2, 1978
117 119 121 123 125
 
June 21, 1982
 
April 9, 1986
 
January 26, 1990
 
November 13, 1993
 
September 2, 1997
127 129 131 133 135
 
June 21, 2001
 
April 8, 2005
 
January 26, 2009
 
November 13, 2012
 
September 1, 2016
137 139 141 143 145
 
June 21, 2020
 
April 8, 2024
 
January 26, 2028
 
November 14, 2031
 
September 2, 2035
147 149 151 153 155
 
June 21, 2039
 
April 9, 2043
 
January 26, 2047
 
November 14, 2050
 
September 2, 2054
157
 
June 21, 2058

Other solar eclipses crossing the United StatesEdit

Notable total and annular solar eclipse crossing the United States in the 20th century:

Total Annular Annular Total Total Annular Total Annular
 
Jun 8, 1918
 
Nov 22, 1919
 
Sep 1, 1951
 
Jun 30, 1954
 
Feb 26, 1979
 
May 30, 1984
 
Jul 11, 1991
 
May 10, 1994

Notable total and annular solar eclipse crossing the United States in the 21st century:

Annular Total Annular Total Total Annular Total Annular
 
May 20, 2012
 
Aug 21, 2017
 
Oct 14, 2023
 
April 8, 2024
 
Aug 12, 2045
 
Jun 11, 2048
 
Mar 30, 2052
 
Jan 16, 2056

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jamie Carter (April 8, 2019). "Countdown Begins To 'Great North American Eclipse', The Longest, Darkest and Best For 21 Years". Forbes. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  2. ^ Doris Elin Urrutia (August 21, 2019). "It's Not Too Early to Plan for the Great American Total Solar Eclipse of 2024". Space.com. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  3. ^ Sebastian Kettley (August 23, 2019). "Solar eclipse: Another 'Great American Eclipse' is coming – Get ready for solar spectacle". London: Daily Express / Sunday Express. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  4. ^ Dickinson, Terence (August 3, 2017). "Canada's last solar eclipse in 1979". Maclean's. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  5. ^ Total Solar Eclipse in Mexico, 1991 (in Spanish). National Autonomous University of Mexico. 1991. ISBN 9789683617613. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
  6. ^ "Location of Total Solar Eclipse of April 8, 2024". GreatAmericanEclipse.com. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  7. ^ Gore, Leada (August 22, 2017). "Solar eclipse 2024: Best U.S. cities to see the next total solar eclipse". The Birmingham News. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  8. ^ Eliasen, Terry (August 21, 2017). "Next Solar Eclipse Puts New England in Path Of Totality". CBS Boston. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  9. ^ "Village of Forest, Ohio – 2024 Eclipse".
  10. ^ Morgia, Alex (October 11, 2022). Village Board Meeting: October 11, 2022. Sackets Harbor. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  11. ^ Fowler, Shane (August 23, 2017). "Prime location to view total eclipse in 7 years? New Brunswick". CBC News. Woodstock and Miramichi will spend the most time in the dark with totality durations of 3:17 and 3:09. Fredericton will experience about 2:21 minutes of totality. Moncton, Saint John and Bathurst will just miss out on experiencing a total technical blackout, but will still see 98 to 99 per cent of the sun disappear.
  12. ^ Yarr, Kevin (August 23, 2017). "P.E.I. on the path for 2024 total solar eclipse". CBC News. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Totality will cover the Island from about Summerside and west, with the centre of the path crossing over North Cape.
  13. ^ "NASA – Total Solar Eclipse of 2024 Apr 08". March 27, 2008. Archived from the original on March 27, 2008.
  14. ^ "Eclipse Path of Total Solar Eclipse on April 8, 2024". www.timeanddate.com.
  15. ^ "Total Solar Eclipse 2017 – Path Overlap with the 2024 Eclipse". eclipse2017.org. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  16. ^ van Gent, R.H. "Solar- and Lunar-Eclipse Predictions from Antiquity to the Present". A Catalogue of Eclipse Cycles. Utrecht University. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  17. ^ Saros Series Catalog of Solar Eclipses NASA Eclipse Web Site.
  18. ^ Ten Millennium Catalog of Long Solar Eclipses, -3999 to +6000 (4000 BCE to 6000 CE) Fred Espenak.

External linksEdit